The 23-year-old recently spent a period on trial with the Heed, starting in the 4-2 win over Hebburn Town last Friday night.
The North Shields-born stopper spent four years with Huddersfield Town before a one-month loan spell with Salford City in late 2014.
Guthrie has also appeared for Clitheroe Town and most recently played for Consett in Northern League Division One.
The goalkeeper is glad to have signed on the dotted line for the Heed, telling gateshead-fc.com: “I’m delighted, full-time football is something that I’ve wanted to get back into for a long time so I’m very happy to be here.
“I got a good feel for the lads [at Hebburn] and how they like to play, obviously when the manager is playing centre-back you get a good feel of how the team wants to play and I thought we did well.
Guthrie is the second goalkeeper to sign for Gateshead this week, following the loan addition of Middlesbrough stopper Brad James on Tuesday.
The former Huddersfield Town man is looking forward to competing for the starting spot, adding: “He’s got a good pedigree coming from Middlesbrough and hopefully it’s going to be competitive.
“Hopefully I’ll get a good run in training and I can keep pushing for the number one shirt.
“The setup here is unbelievable and I want to get back up the leagues with the club.”